The Business Model Canvas
Examples from Invention Capital




Business Model: "A design of the operations of a business which focuses on how revenue will be generated" (

A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010)

A business model is a description of the activities that a company performs to generate revenue or other benefits, and the relationships, information, and product flows a company has with its customers, suppliers, and complementors (Malone et al., 2006)

[A] Business Model Canvas (BMC) is a strategic management tool, which allows us to develop and sketch out new or existing business models. It is a visual template pre-formatted with the nine blocks of a business model:

  1. Key Activities: The activities necessary to execute a company's business model.

  2. Key Resources: The resources that are necessary to create value for the customer.

  3. Partner Network: The business alliances which complement other aspects of the business model.

  4. Value Proposition: The products and services a business offers. Quoting Osterwalder (2004), a value proposition "is an overall view of .. products and services that together represent value for a specific customer segment. It describes the way a firm differentiates itself from its competitors and is the reason why customers buy from a certain firm and not from another."

  5. Customer Segments: The target audience for a business' products and services.

  6. Channels: The means by which a company delivers products and services to customers. This includes the company's marketing and distribution strategy.

  7. Customer Relationship: The links a company establishes between itself and its different customer segments. The process of managing customer relationships is referred to as customer relationship management.

  8. Cost Structure: The monetary consequences of the means employed in the business model.

  9. Revenue Streams: The way a company makes money through a variety of revenue flows. A company's income.

Figure 1. The Business Model Canvas with an Example from Osterwalder & Pigneur

Figure 1 is an example from Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2004. A template for the BM Canvas is provided herein (Yeap, 2011b). Additional examples based on real companies (Yeap, 2013) that have applied the BM Canvas are also made available for reference purposes.

An illustrative video (cache) on the Business Model Canvas:

Other good web resources on Business Model Canvas:

[B] Social Venture Business Model Canvas (SVBMC) was created Professor Wong Poh Kam (Wong, 2015) and is a natural extension of the original BMC. SVBMC allows social entrepreneurs to utilise the commonly used Business Model Canvas to pen down two additional dimensions (Social Cost & Social Benefit) that is relevant to many social enterprises. 

Figure 2. The Social Venture Business Model Canvas (Wong, 2015, pp. 92)

In conclusion, complementary to Invention Capital Business Feasilibity Framework (Yeap 2011a), all Invention Capital investees are expected to submit their respective BM Canvas for review prior to an investment offer.


Malone, T. W., Weill, P., Lai, R.K., D’Urso, V. T., Herman, G. Apel, T. G., and Woerner, S. L. 2006. Do Some Business Models Perform Better than Others?, MIT Working Paper 4615-06.

Osterwalder. A., 2004. The Business Model Ontology - A Proposition In A Design Science Approach. PhD thesis University of Lausanne.

Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y., 2010. Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers 1st ed., Wiley.

Wong, P.K., 2015. Examples of Social Business Model Canvas in "A Purpose-driven Approach to Business Model Design" (cache), National University of Singapore.

Yeap, T., 2011a. Business Feasibility Framework, Invention Capital Publishing.

Yeap, T., 2011b. Business Model Canvas template, Invention Capital Publishing.

Yeap, T., 2013. Business Model Canvas: 15 Examples (v1.2) from Invention Capital, Invention Capital Publishing.